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The Nature and Extent of Sexting Among a National Sample of Middle and High School Students in the U.S.Sameer HindujaJustin W. Patchin1Email authorSameer Hinduja21.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of Wisconsin-Eau ClaireEau ClaireUSA2.School of Criminology and Criminal JusticeFlorida Atlantic UniversityJupiterUSAOriginal PaperFirst Online: 15 July 2019



AbstractSexting is the sending or receiving of sexually explicit or sexually suggestive images or video, usually via mobile devices. Despite widespread public concern about these behaviors as they occur among adolescents, including potentially serious legal consequences, relatively little research has been done to estimate the frequency of sexting among middle and high school students. The current study contributes to this scant body of knowledge by reporting prevalence rates for sending and receiving sexually explicit images or video among a nationally representative sample of 5593 American middle and high school students. Overall, approximately 13% of students reported that they had sent a sext, while 18.5% had received a sext. About one-third of those who sext had done it just one time. Rates of asking for, being asked for, and sharing of sexts are also presented, and are broken down further by gender, sexual orientation, race, and age. Implications for preventing sexting behaviors with these results in mind are also discussed.KeywordsSexting Explicit images Sexual behaviors Social media Adolescents This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.NotesFundingThe data utilized in this study were collected through a grant from the Digital Trust Foundation (#31-3).Compliance with Ethical StandardsConflict of InterestThe authors report no conflicts of interest.Research Involving Human Participants and/or AnimalsThe project methodology was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the university of the corresponding author.Informed ConsentParental consent and child assent was obtained for all participants.Publisher’s NoteSpringer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.ReferencesBaruch, Y., & Holtom, B. C. (2008). Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. 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Patchin, J.W. & Hinduja, S. Arch Sex Behav (2019).

31 July 2017

01 April 2019

02 April 2019

First Online
15 July 2019


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